内网渗透常用命令总结(linux)

0x00 前言

上次总结了windows系统在内网渗透和提权中的常用命令,这篇总结下linux在内网渗透中常用的命令。

0x01 查看操作系统信息

操作系统版本

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cat /etc/issue
cat /etc/*-release
cat /etc/lsb-release # Debian
cat /etc/redhat-release # Redhat

内核版本

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cat /proc/version
uname -a
uname -mrs
rpm -q kernel
dmesg | grep Linux
ls /boot | grep vmlinuz-

环境变量

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cat /etc/profile
cat /etc/bashrc
cat ~/.bash_profile
cat ~/.bashrc
cat ~/.bash_logout
env
set

0x02 应用和服务

正在运行的程序和权限

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ps aux
ps -ef
top
cat /etc/services

如果要查询root权限运行的进程,可以补充为

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ps aux | grep root
ps -ef | grep root

应用

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ls -alh /usr/bin/
ls -alh /sbin/
dpkg -l
rpm -qa
ls -alh /var/cache/apt/archives
ls -alh /var/cache/yum/

服务的配置文件

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cat /etc/syslog.conf
cat /etc/chttp.conf
cat /etc/lighttpd.conf
cat /etc/cups/cupsd.conf
cat /etc/inetd.conf
cat /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
cat /etc/my.conf
cat /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
cat /opt/lampp/etc/httpd.conf
ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /^.*r.*/'

计划任务

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crontab -l
ls -alh /var/spool/cron
ls -al /etc/ | grep cron
ls -al /etc/cron*
cat /etc/cron*
cat /etc/at.allow
cat /etc/at.deny
cat /etc/cron.allow
cat /etc/cron.deny
cat /etc/crontab
cat /etc/anacrontab
cat /var/spool/cron/crontabs/root

存储的明文用户名,密码

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grep -i user [filename]
grep -i pass [filename]
grep -C 5 "password" [filename]
find . -name "*.php" -print0 | xargs -0 grep -i -n "var $password" # Joomla

0x03 网络相关

网络地址

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ifconfig -a
cat /etc/network/interfaces
cat /etc/sysconfig/network

网络配置,DNS,DHCP,网关

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cat /etc/resolv.conf
cat /etc/sysconfig/network
cat /etc/networks
iptables -L
hostname
dnsdomainname

网络通信

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lsof -i
lsof -i :80
grep 80 /etc/services
netstat -antup
netstat -antpx
netstat -tulpn
chkconfig --list
chkconfig --list | grep 3:on
last
w

路由缓存

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arp -e
route
route -nee

0x04 用户相关

用户信息

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id
who
w
last
cat /etc/passwd
cat /etc/group
cat /etc/shadow
ls -alh /var/mail/
grep -v -E "^#" /etc/passwd | awk -F: '$3 == 0 { print $1}' # 列出超级用户
awk -F: '($3 == "0") {print}' /etc/passwd #列出超级用户
cat /etc/sudoers
sudo -l

列主目录

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ls -ahlR /root/
ls -ahlR /home/

其他用户的操作记录

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cat ~/.bash_history
cat ~/.nano_history
cat ~/.atftp_history
cat ~/.mysql_history
cat ~/.php_history

ssh私钥

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cat ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
cat ~/.ssh/identity.pub
cat ~/.ssh/identity
cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa
cat ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub
cat ~/.ssh/id_dsa
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_config
cat /etc/ssh/sshd_config
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.pub
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key.pub
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.pub
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key

0x05 文件系统相关

日志文件

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ls -alh /var/log
ls -alh /var/mail
ls -alh /var/spool
ls -alh /var/spool/lpd
ls -alh /var/lib/pgsql
ls -alh /var/lib/mysql
cat /var/lib/dhcp3/dhclient.lea
cat /etc/httpd/logs/access_log
cat /etc/httpd/logs/access.log
cat /etc/httpd/logs/error_log
cat /etc/httpd/logs/error.log
cat /var/log/apache2/access_log
cat /var/log/apache2/access.log
cat /var/log/apache2/error_log
cat /var/log/apache2/error.log
cat /var/log/apache/access_log
cat /var/log/apache/access.log
cat /var/log/auth.log
cat /var/log/chttp.log
cat /var/log/cups/error_log
cat /var/log/dpkg.log
cat /var/log/faillog
cat /var/log/httpd/access_log
cat /var/log/httpd/access.log
cat /var/log/httpd/error_log
cat /var/log/httpd/error.log
cat /var/log/lastlog
cat /var/log/lighttpd/access.log
cat /var/log/lighttpd/error.log
cat /var/log/lighttpd/lighttpd.access.log
cat /var/log/lighttpd/lighttpd.error.log
cat /var/log/messages
cat /var/log/secure
cat /var/log/syslog
cat /var/log/wtmp
cat /var/log/xferlog
cat /var/log/yum.log
cat /var/run/utmp
cat /var/webmin/miniserv.log
cat /var/www/logs/access_log
cat /var/www/logs/access.log
ls -alh /var/lib/dhcp3/
ls -alh /var/log/postgresql/
ls -alh /var/log/proftpd/
ls -alh /var/log/samba/

网站文件

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ls -alhR /var/www/
ls -alhR /srv/www/htdocs/
ls -alhR /usr/local/www/apache22/data/
ls -alhR /opt/lampp/htdocs/
ls -alhR /var/www/html/

文件挂载

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mount
df -h
cat /etc/fstab

可写目录

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find / -writable -type d 2>/dev/null # 可写目录
find / -perm -222 -type d 2>/dev/null # 可写目录
find / -perm -o w -type d 2>/dev/null # 可写目录
find / -perm -o x -type d 2>/dev/null # 可执行目录
find / \( -perm -o w -perm -o x \) -type d 2>/dev/null # 可写可执行目录

0x06 准备与攻击

语言支持

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find / -name perl*
find / -name python*
find / -name gcc*
find / -name cc

上传方式

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find / -name wget
find / -name nc*
find / -name netcat*
find / -name tftp*
find / -name ftp

寻找exp

编译exp

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which gcc
gcc exp.c -o exp

运行exp

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chmod +x exp
./exp